Discuss the ways the researchers attempted to ensure ethical human rights principles were followed along with cultural sensitivity during the collection of data.

Select a research article that has a global population as the sample. Discuss the ways the researchers attempted to ensure ethical human rights principles were followed along with cultural sensitivity during the collection of data. What are your thoughts about the degree to which the ethical principles were followed and that they were culturally sensitive to the population they were studying?The research article that I will be discussing is Interculturalism and Informed Consent: Respecting Cultural Differences without Breaching Human Rights.“Ethics is defined as “the branch of philosophy dealing with values relating to human conduct, with respect to the rightness or wrongness of certain actions and to the goodness and badness of the motives and ends of such actions” (Ekmekci & Arda, 2017).The article protects the rights and well-being of individuals of different cultures and religions involved in clinical trials. The researchers used ethical frameworks and guidelines for their clinical research during data collection. “Four ethical dimensions are highlighted in these documents: intercultural perspectives to assess the risks and benefits of the research, culturally appropriate and respectful informed consent procedures, confidentiality and disclosure policies, and community and participant consultation” (Deardoff, 2001).I feel that the ethical principles were followed and that they were culturally sensitive to the population they were studying. They were sensitive and respectful of African values and cultures. They made sure that the research was for the benefit of African people and the global population while promoting respect for individuals and communities, individual rights, fairness, equity, autonomy in decision making, safety, privacy, and confidentiality.“The Nuremberg Code was the first document to specify the ethical principles that should guide physicians engaged in human subjects research; among other principles, it states that the “voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential” (Skolnik, 2016, pg. 85).References:Deardoff DK, editor. The SAGE handbook of intercultural competence. California: Sage Publications; 2001.Ekmekci, P. E., & Arda, B. (2017). Interculturalism and Informed Consent: Respecting Cultural Differences without Breaching Human Rights. Cultura (Iasi, Romania), 14(2), 159–172.Skolnik, R. (2016). Global Health 101 (3rd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Classmate 2: Angela: Select a research article that has a global population as the sample. Discuss the ways the researchers attempted to ensure ethical human rights principles were followed along with cultural sensitivity during the collection of data. What are your thoughts about the degree to which the ethical principles were followed and that they were culturally sensitive to the population they were studying?I thought using the COVID-19 pandemic was a good example of a global population sample because it’s something we have all recently been through and something that everyone (or mostly everyone) has been following. The World Health Organization brings together scientists, researchers, and other health professionals from all around the world to help control and study the effects and spread of COVID-19. (“Solidarity II” global serologic study for COVID-19, 2022) A study called Solidarity 2, is used to help gather information/surveys around the world, held by public health professionals, and academic institutions. Systematic COVID-19 testing allows us to understand how far the virus has spread, what populations are being most affected by it, and can help make decisions, such as wearing masks, and how to administer vaccines. This brings us to the area of vaccines, which has been a hot topic of controversy since the vaccine has become available. “The Solidarity Trial Vaccines (STV) is an international, multi center, multi vaccine, adaptive, shared placebo, event driven, individually randomized controlled clinical trial that aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of promising new COVID-19 vaccines.” (Solidarity Trial Vaccines , 2022) The STV is doing recruitments in a few selected sites, such as Mali, Colombia, and the Philippines. I particularly found these sites to be random, but also hold a diverse amount of people. The majority of Colombians are either European decent, or have an American Indian ancestry. (Ethnic Groups Of Colombia, n.d.) Mali, is a country found in West Africa, this country in itself has many different ethnic groups, including Mande, Bambara, Malinke, and Sarakole, many of which are indigenous people or minorities. (Ethnic Groups of Mali , 2022) The last country is the Philippines, is geographically Southeast Asia, it is culturally Euro-American. (Ethnic Groups of The Philippines , 2022) I do find that the range of the ethnic groups to be good, but I also think they should have had a broader range of countries, or even wealthier countries. In my opinion, the trial could have picked more countries to start the recruitment in. According to WHO, anyone who is over the age of 16, in a high COVID area, who hasn’t had COVID, and who has received the vaccine, can volunteer. (Solidarity Trial Vaccines , 2022)Global research can be hard because, it’s important that we are picking the right areas to volunteer. In this case, the high cases of COVID were made a priority, and it is strictly volunteer based. They will also make sure the check the volunteer’s eligibility and their signed consent forms. (Solidarity Trial Vaccines , 2022) The participants will be followed up for a week, all the way up until at least one year. Human rights is extremely important when it comes to research such as vaccines as failure to consider then can results in harm. (Module 3: Topic 1: Human Rights in Research, 2022) Since this is obviously a very large clinical trial, WHO established an independent governance structure to ensure safety and ordinance. Specifically, the International Steering Committee, that has the Ministry of Health representative, and a representative from the National Principal Investigator, that are responsible for obtaining ethical approvals. (Solidarity Trial Vaccines , 2022)Due to the fact they had to go to places where rates where high, I would say they were culturally appropriate. I would also say because they made sure to have signed consent, and created committees to ensure ethical considerations were applied.Because of the already ethical considerations we consider about vaccines are a hot topic, I think it was important they did not mandate the vaccines, and followed up with those who did decide to do the trial. This ensured, for at least a year the participants were watched over just in case.References“Solidarity II” global serologic study for COVID-19. (2022). Retrieved from World Health Organization : https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/global-research-on-novel-coronavirus-2019-ncov/solidarity-2-global-serologic-study-for-covid-19Ethnic Groups Of Colombia. (n.d.). Retrieved from World Atlas : https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/ethnic-groups-of-colombia.htmlEthnic Groups of Mali . (2022). Retrieved from World Atlas : https://www.worldatlas.com/maps/maliEthnic Groups of The Philippines . (2022). Retrieved from World Atlas : https://www.worldatlas.com/maps/philippinesModule 3: Topic 1: Human Rights in Research. (2022). Retrieved from Chamberlain University : https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/102944/pages/module-3-topic-1-human-rights-in-research?module_item_id=14866875Solidarity Trial Vaccines . (2022). Retrieved from World Health Organization : https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/global-research-on-novel-coronavirus-2019-ncov/solidarity-trial-of-covid-19-vaccines