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The goal of ADHD treatment is to improve symptoms, optimize functional performance, and remove behavioral obstacles. The primary care practitioners should provide families with ADHD-specific resources and general parenting advice. Effective behavioral therapies include parent training, classroom management, peer interventions, and combinations of these interventions (Evans et al., 2017). Building social skills, overcoming learning problems, and gaining independence are essential aspects of managing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in teenagers. It is critical for teenagers with ADHD to begin accepting responsibility for their conduct. Whether in a group or individual setting, parent training provides education to help parents better understand ADHD, behavioral issues, and teenager’s development. This training also teaches them how to utilize positive parenting methods (such as praise and rewards for specific actions) and decrease disruptive teenager behavior. Treatment (CBT) typically consists of seven to twelve weekly sessions and has been shown to enhance child behavior and parent satisfaction (Evans et al., 2017). Classroom management focuses on strategies for improving classroom routines and structure, a bauble culture for shaping positive behaviors, and a daily behavioral report card to measure progress and provide feedback to teenagers, parents, and team members (Evans et al., 2017). Peer treatments to enhance social behavior include social skills training and time-consuming, adult-mediated encounters (Evans et al., 2017).
Medicines can assist teenagers with ADHD in ignoring distractions, staying focused, and completing activities (Feldman & Reiff, 2018). Psychostimulants are the most effective and safe alternative for ADHD therapy, and they are the first choice in national guidelines and reviews (Christner et al., 2018). Example of psychostimulants are methylphenidate, dextroamphetamine, and mixed amphetamine salts such as dextroamphetamine/amphetamine. However, atomoxetine (Strattera) and alpha-2 receptor agonists (guanfacine, clonidine) have less research and are less effective than psychostimulants (Christner et al., 2018).
References
Christner, J., O’Brien, J.M., Felt, B.T., Harrison, R.V., Kochhar, P.K., & Bierman, B. (2018). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Health System.
Evans, S.W., Owens, J.S., & Bunford, N. (2017). Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of clinical child & adolescent psychology abbreviation, 61(7):817–551.
Feldman, H.M., & Reiff, M.I. (2018). Clinical practice. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. New England Journal of Medicine, 410(7):715–749.