Sociolingustics

QUESTIONS1). Language use can vary depending on several factors includingindividual, societal, and situational. Indicate how the conceptscode switching and accommodation fit into these factors; definethem briefly in your own words and indicate whether they areindividual, societal or situational, or whether more than onefactor is involved, explaining why you feel this. Be sure toclearly define each of these concepts, giving an example of eachand distinguishing the concepts from each other in yourresponse. Your response to this question should not exceedthree-quarters of a page.
2). Consider methodological issues of defining social groups’and individuals’ identity categories like class membership. Arespeakers’ language varieties constant, or do they vary, and ifso, what might cause them to vary in the variety they speak?What are the relative merits of social networks vs. moretraditional methods of defining speech communities? What aresome constraints of these approaches? Briefly describe the mainfindings of the most important studies on sociolinguisticvariation described in chapters 6-8 of Wardhaugh. Your responseto this question should not exceed 2 pages.
3). Define the concepts prestige, variety, vernacular,hypercorrection, and over-reporting vs. under-reporting, givingan example of each and indicating how the gender differencestudies presented in Coates chapters 4 & 6-8 illustrate theseconcepts. What are the main findings of these studies on genderin conversation and how do minimal responses, hedges, tagquestions and turn-taking reflect these gender differences? (Besure to also define these terms.) Your response to this questionshould not exceed 1.5 pages.
GRADING CRITERIA-theoretical concepts from the course literature: show thatyou have read and understand the concepts covered in theliterature and can critically relate them in your response;make sure you give concrete examples and explanations of theconcepts you take up.-argumentation: clearly address the topic you choose,connecting your arguments to each other and to the topic youaddress; make sure you explain any claims you make clearly.-language: correct grammar, spelling and lexical choice,coherent and well-organized responses with appropriate use ofreferences to the course literature in academic English.
LANGUAGE REQUIREMENTS & SOURCINGIt is important that your essay is written in academic English.Avoid personal reflections and try to be objective in yourexposition. You should also avoid the use of contractions (e.g.didn’t) and make sure to use complete sentences which all havea subject and a finite verb. (For example, the following is nota complete sentence (indicated with a *): Apples are good forthe health. *Especially for the digestive system.) Make use ofcoherence markers, linking the concepts you present to eachother and to the main essay topic and use appropriateparagraphing and punctuation.You should define the concepts in your own words rather thandirectly quoting from the literature. If, however, youparaphrase from the literature, be sure to indicate thereference by indicating the relevant pages (or website) for thisinformation. e.g. Apples are fruits (Author’s surname Year: pagenumbers, i.e. Wardhaugh & Fuller 2015: 38). Remember that afailure to indicate the sources of your claims, if drawn fromsecondary sources, constitutes plagiarism. At the end of youressay, you should have a references section where you indicatethe text(s) you referred to in your essay.