What are the advantages and disadvantages of probability-based sampling designs compared with nonprobability-based designs?

Question 1If you were given a questionnaire right now that asked you about your use of alcohol and illicit drugs in the past year would you disclose the details fully? (This is not a question about your alcohol and drug use! We are not looking for true confessions here!) How do you think others would respond? What if there was a confidential ID number on the questionnaire so that the researdher could keep track of who responded? What criterion validation procedure would you suggest for assessing measurement validity?Don’t try to answer this all at once.Question 2What are the advantages and disadvantages of probability-based sampling designs compared with nonprobability-based designs? Could any of the studies that are described in this chapter with a nonprobability-based design have been conducted instead with a probability-based design? What difficulties might have been encountered in an attempt to use random selection? How would you discuss the degree of confidence you can place in the results obtained from research using a nonprobability-based sampling design?Don’t try to answer this all at once.Question 3There is a great deal of discussion in the social science literature about units of analysis and levels of explanation. Some social researchers may call another a “reductionist” if the research explains a problem, such as substance abuse, as due to “lack of self-control.” The idea is that the behavior requires a consideration or social structure – a group level of analysis rather than an individual level of analysis. Another researcher may be said to commit an “ecological fallacy” if s/he assumes that group-level characteristics explain behavior at the individual level (such as saying the “immigrants are more likely to commit crime” because the neighborhoods with higher proportions of immigrants have higher crime rates). Do you favor causal explanations at the individual or the group (or social structural) level? If you were forced to mark on a scale from 0 to 100 the percentage of crime that is due to problems with individuals rather than to problems with the settings in which they live an d other aspects of social structure, where would you make your mark? Explain your decision.You should answer these questions together in one post.
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